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Post JYM Ingredient Breakdown

Pre JYM was just the start. Read my breakdown of the ingredients in Post JYM Active Matrix, how they help to promote better recovery and results, and why they're the perfect complement to Pre JYM.

Post JYM Ingredient Breakdown

I want to cover the importance of post-workout nutrition. I'm not talking about post-workout macronutrients. Obviously, you need a solid protein blend post-workout—Pro JYM is your best option—and you know I'm a firm believer in fast-digesting carbs to aid recovery—which is my Post JYM dextrose—but I'm talking specifically about Post JYM Active Matrix ingredients.

Why You Need to Take a Post-Workout

Why is it so critical that you take a post-workout like Post JYM? Most people focus on their pre-workout and a protein shake. Pre-workout is critical, as long as it's got the right doses of each ingredient like Pre JYM, because you're going to get branched-chain amino acids, creatine HCl, beta-alanine, betaine, nitric oxide boosters; you're going to get more endurance, and more strength from all those components as well as caffeine. That's going to enhance your workout—so you think you're covered, right?

If you've done one of my workouts, you know at the end you're completely wasted. You've destroyed every muscle fiber that you're targeting in that muscle group. You walk away from the gym just drinking water? You're undermining your results.

There's a lot of debate out there on the post-workout window, and that's more about the macronutrients—getting a protein and a carb source post-workout. There are experts out there that say it's not really that critical. And really, there's no real research—although there are experts trying to hang their hats on a few poorly-done studies and say that you really don't need to worry about post-workout nutrition.

Without a doubt, what I've seen in the actual gym—in real athletes who are following intense training programs and really want to maximize their results—getting in your post-workout nutrition is critical, as soon after the workout as possible. It's going to enhance recovery, no doubt about it.

Athletes that I work with indirectly—regular guys and girls who are fitness enthusiasts like most of you out there—notice a difference when they start using Post JYM Active Matrix. Below I’ll break down what sets Post JYM apart from other post-workouts, and why it’s so effective at enhancing recovery—and results.

Glutamine

I'm a firm believer in getting a good dose of glutamine post-workout. Glutamine is one of those debatable ingredients: It's an essential amino acid that is one of the most prevalent in the body. Glutamine isn't all that special as far as noticeable benefits go. However, I provide 3 grams of glutamine in Post JYM because its levels are critical in muscle cells for muscle protein synthesis.

Glutamine is not only one of the essential amino acids needed for muscle protein synthesis—it’s also one of the highest-concentrated amino acids in the body, as many other bodily tissues use it. The kidneys, the immune system, and the digestive system all use glutamine for energy. If any of these organs or systems is cranked up, its energy needs will increase and it will pull glutamine from the muscle cells.

Exercise is a stress on the body that ramps up the immune system. When this happens, the immune system will need extra glutamine—and will take it from the muscles. Research has shown that if muscle glutamine levels are low after exercise, protein synthesis may be compromised.

So it makes sense to get in a dose of readily available glutamine. It can quickly supply the intestines and immune cells the energy they need, as well as restock muscle levels so that muscle protein synthesis can be maximized when you get in your protein blend—like Pro JYM—and BCAAs—also present in Post JYM.

As for dosing, go for 3-5 grams of glutamine as soon after your workout as possible, so that protein synthesis isn't compromised and muscle growth can be maximized. Many people have stomach issues taking glutamine, so start on the lower end of the dosing scale. This stomach sensitivity issue is why I have 3 grams of glutamine in Post JYM. This dose helps reduce these issues yet still provides an adequate dose to get the job done.

You can take glutamine at other times of day, too, but if the immune system isn't revved up—such as after workouts—it won’t likely provide a huge benefit. That’s why I only recommend 3-5 grams taken post-workout. That way the immune system and your intestines have enough of it, and the muscles are topped off too, so recovery and muscle growth can be maximized. That's what we're trying to do—maximize results.

References

Supporting Research

Legault, Z., et al, The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Oct;25(5):417-26. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0209. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Xu YY et al, Enteral nutrition combined with glutamine promotes recovery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2018 Feb 7;24(5):583-592. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i5.583.

Ventura, G. et al, Influence of an ω3-fatty acid-enriched enteral diet with and without added glutamine on the metabolic response to injury in a rat model of prolonged acute catabolism. Nutrition. 2017 Oct;42:75-81. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.06.001. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Creatine

Creatine is without a doubt one of the most effective supplements ever to be sold. The main way that creatine monohydrate works is by serving as a major energy-producing molecule inside muscle cells.

As I’ve explained before—it's synthesized in the body, primarily in the liver—from the two amino acids arginine and glycine. Muscle tissue does not produce creatine, and therefore it must take up creatine from the bloodstream. Once inside muscle cells, creatine gets a high-energy phosphate attached to it and is then known as phosphocreatine (PCr) or creatine phosphate.

It is this high-energy molecule that's one of the most critical components of creatine’s beneficial effects in the body, for this reason: Creatine donates its high-energy phosphate to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used by the muscle for the rapid energy it needs for contraction, such as during weightlifting.This provides the muscle fibers the quick bursts of energy they need when lifting weights or running fast.

Research has also discovered that creatine can increase levels of the important compound insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and blunt the production of the muscle-growth-inhibiting protein myostatin. This leads to bigger and stronger muscles.

In fact, research suggests that creatine can increase muscle mass by as much as 10 pounds and boost strength gains by 10 percent in just a few weeks. It also has been proven in several studies to be very safe with long-term use and to even provide a variety of health benefits.

The reason I have you taking creatine post-workout is the fact that post-workout I also recommend getting those branched-chain amino acids, and leucine spikes insulin. But I also recommend getting fast-digesting carbs post-workout. Remember, you want to recover properly. Those fast-digesting carbs may be important for glycogen resynthesis in muscle, replacing those carbs—but here it's critical for insulin.

Insulin is required for creatine to get into the muscle, so you want to be taking your creatine at a time when absorption and uptake by the muscles is maximized. And what we now know is that post-workout that uptake can be maximized—if you have enough insulin.

Most of the research is done with creatine monohydrate. It's a very effective form of creatine. It's just not absorbed as well as creatine hydrochloride (HCl). When creatine monohydrate sits in your intestine and is not taken up, water gets drawn into the intestines. When you have water drawn into the intestines, that gives you diarrhea.

That’s why my preferred form of creatine is creatine HCl. That's the form that causes far fewer stomach issues, so that's the form I recommend most people use. The hydrochloric acid that's added actually enhances its solubility and enhances its uptake.

That way it's not something that you can't take because you have stomach issues. The research has shown that creatine HCl is absorbed by the intestines almost 70% better than monohydrate. You need less than monohydrate, and it causes far fewer stomach issues. 2g, I find, is the perfect dose pre- and post-workout.

References

Supporting Research

Dash, A., et al. Evaluation of creatine transport using Caco-2 monolayers as an in vitro model for intestinal absorption. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 90(10):1593-1598, 2001.

Powers, M. E., et al. Creatine supplementation increases total body water without altering fluid distribution. Journal of Athletic Training 38(1):44-50, 2003.

Miller, D. Oral bioavailability of creatine supplements: Is there room for improvement? Annual Meeting of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2009.

Andrews, R., et al. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Eur. Heart J. 19:617– 622, 1998.

Arciero, P.J., et al. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism. 50:1429–1434. 2001.

Balsom, P. D., et al. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent exercise. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 3:143–149, 1993.

Balsom, P. D., et al. Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. Acta Physiol. Scand. 1154:303–310, 1995.

Becque, M.D., et al. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32:654–658. 2000.

Bemben, M.G., et al. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in College football athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 33:1667–1673. 2001.

Birch, R., et al. The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69:268 –270, 1994.

Bosco, C., et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. Int. J. Sports Med. 18:369 –372, 1997.11:234 –238, 1997.

Brenner, M., et al. The effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training in women. J. Strength Cond. Res. 14:207–213. 2000.

Burke, D.G., et al. The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 11:349–364. 2001.

Burke, D. G. Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 18(4):389-98, 2008.

Cancela, P., et al. Creatine supplementation does not affect clinical health markers in football players. Br J Sports Med. 42(9):731-5, 2008.

Casey, A., et al. Creatine supplementation favourably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal intensity exercise in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 271:E31–E37, 1996.

Chanutin, A., and L. P. Guy. The fate of creatine when administered to man. J. Biol. Chem. 67:29—41, 1926.

Chilibeck, P. D., et al. Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 36(10):1781-8, 2004.

Chwalbinska-Moneta, J. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 13(2):173-83, 2003.

Cribb, P. J. and Hayes, A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 38(11):1918-25, 2006.

Cribb, P. J., et al. Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 39(2):298-307, 2007.

Dalbo, V. J., et al. Putting to rest the myth of creatine supplementation leading to muscle cramps and dehydration. Br J Sports Med. 42(7):567-73, 2008.

Dangott, B., et al. Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation increases satellite cell mitotic activity during compensatory hypertrophy. Int. J. Sports Med. 21:13–16. 2000.

Dawson, B., et al. Effects of oral creatine loading on single and repeated maximal short sprints. Aust. J. Sci. Med. Sport 27:56 –61, 1995.

Earnest, C., et al. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin. Sci. 91:113–118, 1996.

Earnest, C. P., et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol. Scand. 153:207–209, 1995.

Earnest, C. P., et al. Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion on intermediate duration anaerobic treadmill running to exhaustion. J. Strength Condit. Res. 11:234 –238, 1997.

Enette Larson-Meyer, D., et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during off-season training in female soccer players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 14:434–442, 2000.

Febbraio, M. A., et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on intramuscular TCr, metabolism and performance during intermittent, supramaximal exercise in humans. Acta Physiol. Scand. 155: 387–395, 1995.

Ferraro, S., et al. Hemodynamic effects of creatine phosphate in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind comparison trial versus placebo. Clin Cardiol . 19(9):699-703, 1996.

Field, M. L. Creatine supplementation in congestive heart failure. Cardiovasc Res 31(1):174-176, 1996.

Giese, M. W. and Lecher, C. S. Non-enzymatic cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to creatinine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Oct 16;388(2):252-5.

Green, A. L., et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in man. Acta Physiol. Scand. 158:195–202, 1996.            

Greenhaff, P. L., et al. Influence of oral creatine supplementation on muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin. Sci. 84:565–571, 1993.

Greenhaff, P. L., et al. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am. J. Physiol. 266:E725–E730, 1994.

Greenwood, M., et al. Cramping and Injury Incidence in Collegiate Football Players Are Reduced by Creatine Supplementation. J Athl Train. 38(3):216-219, 2003.

Greenwood, M., et al. Creatine supplementation patterns and perceived effects in select division I collegiate athletes. Clin. J. Sports Med. 10:191–194, 2000.

Greenwood M., et al. Creatine supplementation during college football training does not increase the incidence of cramping or injury. Mol Cell Biochem. 244(1-2):83-8, 2003.

Grindstaff, P. D., et al. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers. Int. J. Sports Nutr. 7:330 –346, 1997.

Gordon, A., et al. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. Cardiovasc. Res. 30:413-418, 1995.

Harris, R. C., et al. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin. Sci. 83:367–374, 1992.

Harris, R. C., et al. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on running performance during maximal short term exercise in man. J. Physiol. 467:74P, 1993.

Haussinger, D. Cellular hydration state: an important determinant of protein catabolism in health and disease. Lancet. 1993 May 22;341(8856):1330-2., 1993.

Hersch, S. M., et al. Creatine in Huntington disease is safe, tolerable, bioavailable in brain and reduces serum 8OH2'dG. Neurology 66(2):250-2, 2006.

Hespel, P., et al. Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. J. Physiol. 536:625–633, 2001.

Kraemer, W. J., and J. S. Volek. Creatine supplementation: Its role in human performance. Clin. Sports Med. 18:651– 666, 1999.

Hultman, E., et al. Muscle creatine loading in men. J. Appl. Physiol. 81:232–237, 1996.

Jacobs, I., et al. Creatine ingestion increases anaerobic capacity and maximum accumulated oxygen deficit. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 22:231–243, 1997.

Kelly, V. G., and D. G. Jenkins. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on near-maximal strength and repeated sets of high-intensity bench press exercise. J. Strength Condit. Res. 12:109—115, 1998.

Rawson, E. S. and Volek, J. S. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 17(4):822-31, 2003.

Vandenberghe, K., et al. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J. Appl. Physiol. 83:2055–2063, 1997.

Olsen, S., et al. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. J Physiol. 573(Pt 2):525-34, 2006.

Volek, J. S., et al. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 312:1147– 1156, 1999.

Kreider, R. B., et al. Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes. Mol Cell Biochem. 244(1-2):95-104, 2003.

Terjung, R. L., et al. The American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32(3): 706 –717, 2000.

Bender, A., et al. Creatine improves health and survival of mice. Neurobiology of Aging. 29(9): 1404-1411, 2009.

Gualano, B., et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training. Amino Acids. 2008 Feb;34(2):245-50.

Johnston A.P.. Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):116-20.

Beta-Alanine

Beta-alanine can help with blunting fatigue—but it does this by being converted into another compound. In the body, this amino acid and histidine combine to form the dipeptide (two aminos bound together) known as carnosine; it's also a component of vitamin B3 (pantothenic acid).

Research shows that muscles with higher levels of carnosine can generate more forceful contractions for a longer period, resulting in better gains in strength, endurance, and mass. In one study, subjects who took beta-alanine along with creatine gained more muscle mass and lost more bodyfat than subjects taking just creatine.

Getting 2g of beta-alanine post-workout when the muscles are going to be taking up more nutrients is ideal to increase those levels and help blunt fatigue for workouts later on down the road.

References

Supporting Research

Hoffman, J. R., et al. β-Alanine supplementation. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012 Jul-Aug;11(4):189-95.

Culbertson, J. Y., et al. Effects of beta-alanine on muscle carnosine and exercise performance: A review of the current literature. Nutrients 2: 75-98, 2010.

Artioli, G. G., et al. Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jun;42(6):1162-73.

Derave, W., et al. Beta-alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J. Appl. Physiol. 103:1736-43, 2007.

Hill, C. A, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids. 32:225-33, 2007.

Hoffman J. R., et al. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr. Res. 2008; 28:31-5.

Hoffman J. R., et al. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2006; 16:430-46.

Hoffman J. R., et al. Beta-Alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int. J. Sports Med. 2008; 29:952-8.

Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim CK, et al. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres.. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009 May;106(1):131-8. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-0998-5. Epub 2009 Feb 12.

Kendrick I. P., et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids. 2008; 34:547-54.

Stout J. R., et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2006; 20: 928-31.

Stout, J. R., et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids. 2007; 32:381-6.

Kern, B. D. and Robinson, T. L. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 25(7):1804-1815, 2011.

Donovan, T., et al. β-alanine Improves Punch Force and Frequency in Amateur Boxers During a Simulated Contest. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012 Oct;22(5):331-7.

Hoffman, J. R., et al. β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 10;11(1):15, 2014.

Howe, S. T., et al. The Effect of β-Alanine Supplementation on Isokinetic Force and Cycling Performance in Highly-Trained Cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. In pres, 2013.

Dutka, T. L. and Lamb, G. D. Effect of carnosine on excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically-skinned rat skeletal muscle. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 2004; 25:203-13.

Dutka, T. .L, et al. Effects of carnosine on contractile apparatus Ca2+ sensitivity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca+ release in human skeletal muscle fibers. J. Appl. Physiol. 112(5):728-36, 2012.

Harris, R. C., et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids. 2006; 30:279-89.

Stellingwerff, T., et al. Effect of two beta-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout. Amino Acids 42(6):2461-72, 2012.

Carnitine

Carnitine is often categorized as an amino acid, but that's not exactly accurate. Carnitine is considered a vitamin-like and amino acid-like compound that's related to the B vitamins. More specifically, it's an ammonia-containing compound that's formed in the liver and kidneys from the amino acids lysine and methionine.

Although it's formed in these organs, it's stored primarily in muscle—including the heart—as well as the brain, and even in sperm. Carnitine exists in two forms: D-carnitine and L-carnitine. The L-form is the one found in nature, and is biologically active. The D-form, on the other hand, is biologically inactive and may actually have negative effects on the body.

In addition to boosting athletic performance, carnitine also has anabolic properties that can help to increase muscle growth and strength gains. Research shows that carnitine influences testosterone. University of Connecticut researchers found that carnitine increases the amount of testosterone receptors—known as androgen receptors—inside muscle cells.

The more of these receptors you have in your muscle cells, the more of your testosterone that can bind to them and stimulate muscle growth. In addition, research shows that carnitine supplementation facilitates the action of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a critical growth factor for stimulating growth, by boosting levels of one of its binding proteins that enhances its anabolic actions.

It's imperative that you supplement carnitine at a time when you're consuming fast-digesting carbs to spike insulin levels, such as post-workout. This is one of the reasons why I included 2g of carnitine in Post JYM. The early studies that showed no benefit of carnitine failed to adequately raise muscle carnitine levels—it wasn't supplied at a time when insulin would be spiked and muscle uptake would be adequate.

The newer research shows that insulin levels must be quite high for adequate amounts of carnitine to enter muscle cells, where it performs the majority of its work. On the flip side, taking carnitine enhances insulin's actions at the muscle cells, helping to deliver more glucose into the muscles as well as more carnitine. While as little as 1g of carnitine can be effective, your best bet is to take 2-3g per dose for maximum benefit, along with at least 30g of high-glycemic carbs and 20-40g of protein.

References

Supporting Research

Stephens, F. B., et al. New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. The Journal of Physiology 581: 431-444, 2007.

Buzzigoli, G. and Ferrannini, E. Effects of acute hypercarnitinemia during increased fatty substrate oxidation in man. Metabolism 42(5):594-600, 1993.

Muller, D. M., et al. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on in vivo long-chain fatty acid oxidation in healthy adults. Metabolism 51(11):1389-91, 2002.

Karlic, H, and Lohninger, A. Supplementation of L-Carnitine in Athletes: Does It Make Sense? Nutrition 20:709 –715, 2004.

Spiering, B. A., et al. Effects of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Supplementation on Muscle Oxygenation Responses to Resistance Exercise. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. 22(4):1130-1135, 2008.

Stephens, F. B., et al. An acute increase in skeletal muscle carnitine content alters fuel metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(12):5013-8, 2006.

Wall, B. T., et al. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2011 Feb 15;589(Pt 4):963-73.

S. D. R. Galloway, Effects of oral l-carnitine supplementation on insulin sensitivity indices in response to glucose feeding in lean and overweight/obese males. Amino Acids 41(2):507-515, 2011.

Volek, J. S., et al. L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282: E474 – E482, 2002.

Spiering, B. A., et al. Responses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of L-carnitine L-tartrate. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. 21(1):259-264, February 2007.

Alvarez de Sotomayor, M., et al. Effect of L-Carnitine and Propionyl-L-Carnitine on Endothelial Function of Small Mesenteric Arteries from SHR. J Vasc Res 2007;44:354-364

Bacurau, R. F., et al. Does exercise training interfere with the effects of L-carnitine supplementation? Nutrition. 2003 Apr;19(4):337-41.

Bernard, A., et al. L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Oct;63(10):1027-33.

Bloomer, R. et al. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine increases plasma nitrate/nitrite in resistance trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Dec 3;4(1):22.

Bloomer RJ, Tschume LC, Smith WA. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjects. Int J Vit Nutr Res. In Press.

Ferrari, R., et al. Therapeutic Effects of l-Carnitine and Propionyl-l-carnitine on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1033: 79–91, 2004.

Kraemer, W.J., et al. The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Aug;17(3):455-62.

Cavallini, G., et al. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6.

Garolla, A., et al. Oral carnitine supplementation increases sperm motility in asthenozoospermic men with normal sperm phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase levels. Fertility Sterility 83(2): 355-361, 2005.

Malaguarnera, M., et al. L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1738-44.

Lenzi A, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2004 Jun;81(6):1578-84.

Stephens, F. B., et al. Insulin stimulates L-carnitine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. FASEB J. 20(2):377-9, 2006.

Stephens, F. B., et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments L-carnitine retention in humans. J Appl Physiol 102: 1065–1070, 2007.

Betaine

Your body uses betaine—also called trimethylglycine—for joint and liver repair, joint-building, and liver-protective reactions. Supplementing with it may support faster recovery from injury and inflammation. This unique amino acid derived from beets is quickly becoming one of the most popular supplements out there due to the research that has begun piling up on betaine's ability to boost muscle strength and power, as well as increase growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. It also increases the body's own production of creatine.

Research shows it increases strength, increases muscle size, increases muscle power—when it's taken multiple times a day. Research from the University of Connecticut, which is where I did my doctoral work, started finding out that taking betaine in these two doses—right around 1.5g, I find, is sort of the perfect dose for most people—actually increases strength and power.

And recent research is showing that it also increases muscle growth. I've been seeing that in the gym with people who've switched to taking betaine on top of the creatine and beta-alanine, but now the research is supporting that. It actually can enhance muscle growth, so that's another amino acid that you want to be getting pre- and post-workout, and that's why it's in Pre and Post JYM.

References

Supporting Research

Craig, S. A. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 80: 539–549, 2004.

Hoffman, J. R., et al. Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 6:7, 2009.

Lee, E. C., et al. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7:27, 2010.

Trepanowski, J. F, et al. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 25(12):3461-71, 2011.

Pryor, J. L., et al. Effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9:12, 2012.

Apicella, J. M., et al. Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 113:793-802, 2013.

Cholewa, J. M., et al. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition 10:39, 2013.

Iqbal, O. Betaine induced release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide: Implications in the management of cardiovascular disease. FASEB J 20: A655, 2006.

Lever, M. and Slow, S. The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clin Biochem 43:732–744, 2010.

Craig, S. S., et al. The betaine content of sweat from adolescent females. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7:3, 2010.

Taurine

Taurine is another amino acid. I don't really talk much about taurine. Taurine is one of those amino acids that work well to enhance energy, as well as muscle strength. Research shows that when taurine levels drop in muscle fibers, your strength and your endurance in that muscle—that muscle fiber's ability to contract with more force—diminish. So taurine is a popular pre-workout supplement but few people take it after.

You're taking it pre-workout to make sure you have enough in the muscle, but you're also using it up during exercise. So I have it in your post-workout as well to replenish those levels.

References

Supporting Research

De Silva, L.A., et al. Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Jan;39(1):101-4. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0229. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Martinez Galan, B.S., et al. Effects of taurine on markers of muscle damage, inflammatory response and physical performance in triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017 Jul 25. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07497-7

De Carvalho, F.G., et al. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise. Front Physiol. 2017 Sep 20;8:710. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00710. eCollection 2017.

De Carvalho, F.G., et al. Taurine supplementation can increase lipolysis and affect the contribution of energy systems during front crawl maximal effort. Amino Acids. 2017 Oct 29. doi: 10.1007/s00726-017-2505-3.

McLeay, Y., et al. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017 Oct 17;6(4). pii: E79. doi: 10.3390/antiox6040079.

Goodman, C.A., et al. Taurine supplementation increases skeletal muscle force production and protects muscle function during and after high-frequency in vitro stimulation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Jul;107(1):144-54. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00040.2009. Epub 2009 May 7.

Tu, D.G., et al. Preventive effects of taurine against d-galactose-induced cognitive dysfunction and brain damage. Food Funct. 2017 Oct 25. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01210a.

Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)

Some of the most critical players in your post-workout nutrition are the branched-chain amino acids. Each serving of Post JYM—which I recommend to take within 30 minutes after every workout—provides 6g of BCAAs.

The branched-chain amino acids include leucine, isoleucine, and valine. And it's important that all three of them are provided in a product if you're going to provide any one of them. Research shows that all BCAAs work far better when taken together, right around a 2:1:1 ratio.

The Post JYM formula that I have, I boosted the leucine ratio just up to 3:1:1—leucine to isoleucine to valine—that way, you get just a bit more leucine. It bumps it up to just under 4g because, post-workout, leucine now becomes the star player.

Leucine actually instigates muscle protein synthesis—It's like a key in the ignition of a car, it literally turns it on. And it's critical—we now know that you need a certain amount of leucine to fully get that car started. So make sure you're getting an adequate amount of leucine in your post-workout BCAAs.

In your pre-workout nutrition, when you take BCAAs they’re used as an energy source. That's why you're taking them—not for muscle growth. Muscle growth doesn't happen until the workout is over. You want to get another dose of BCAAs post-workout—but the ratio must be proper.

Now I've talked about that 2:1:1 ratio of leucine to isoleucine to valine in pre-workout; here, we can raise the ratio a little bit just to get some extra leucine—like I said, you really want to make sure you're getting enough of that leucine to turn on that ignition, which in this case is muscle protein synthesis, and that's how muscle grows.

The other importance of the BCAAs in my Post JYM formula is to actually help boost insulin. Post JYM also contains creatine HCl at 2g, and L-carnitine L-tartrate at a 2g dose. Those are the proper doses that you want to have of each of those ingredients post-workout. But the research shows that both of those ingredients won't get taken up by the muscle adequately unless insulin is present.

The leucine in the BCAAs helps to spike insulin, which is why I boosted it up just a little bit more to a 3:1:1 ratio, to help instigate muscle protein synthesis and to boost that insulin release—which is going to help the other ingredients get taken up by the muscles.

Remember, when it comes to your branched-chain amino acids, pre-workout—energy; post-workout—muscle growth and recovery.

References

Supporting Research

Anthony, J. C., Yoshizawa, F., Anthony, T. G., Vary, T. C., Jefferson, L. S., Kimball, S. R. (2000) Leucine stimulates translation initiation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J. Nutr. 130: 2413-2419.

Crozier, S. J., Kimball, S.R., Emmert, S. W., Anthony, J. C., Jefferson, L.S. (2005) Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. 135: 376-382.

Crowe, M. J., et al. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Aug;97(6):664-72.

Bolster, D. R., Crozier, S. J., Kimball, S. R., Jefferson, L. S. (2002) AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle through down-regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 23977-23980.

Koopman R, Wagenmakers AJ, Manders RJ, Zorenc AH, Senden JM, Gorselink M, Keizer HA, van Loon LJ. (2005) Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 288(4): E645-653.

Coburn, J. W., et al. Effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation during eight weeks of unilateral resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 2006 May;20(2):284-91.

Mourier, A., et al. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med 1997 Jan;18(1):47-55.

Cota, D., et al. Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Science. 2006 May 12;312(5775):927-30.

Donato, J., et al. Effects of leucine supplementation on the body composition and protein status of rats submitted to food restriction. Nutrition 22(5):520-527, 2006.

De Lorenzo, A., et al. Effect of acute and chronic branched-chain amino acids on energy metabolism and muscle performance. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):291-7.

Blomstrand, E. A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):544S-547S.

Gomez-Merino, D., et al. Evidence that the branched-chain amino acid L-valine prevents exercise-induced release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus. Int J Sports Med. 2001 Jul;22(5):317-22.

Nishimura, J., et al. Isoleucine Prevents the Accumulation of Tissue Triglycerides and Upregulates the Expression of PPAR{alpha} and Uncoupling Protein in Diet-Induced Obese Mice. J. Nutr., March 2010, in press. 

Tipton, K.D., et al. Acute response of net muscle protein balance reflects 24-h balance after exercise and amino acid ingestion. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism 284(1):E76–E89, 2003.

Karlsson, H. K., et al. Branched-chain amino acids increase p70S6k phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2007; 287(1):E1-7.

Blomstrand, E., Saltin, B. BCAA intake affects protein metabolism in muscle after but not during exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism 281(2):E365–374, 2001.

Borsheim, E., et al. Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism 283(4):E648–E657, 2002.

Shimomura, Y., et al. Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):529S-532S.

Stoppani, J., et al., Consuming branched-chain amino acid supplement during a resistance training program increases lean mass, muscle strength and fat loss. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6(Suppl 1):P1, 2009.

P. La Bounty et al., The effects of oral BCAAs and leucine supplementation combined with an acute lower-body resistance exercise on mTOR and 4E-BP1 activation in humans: preliminary findings. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5(Suppl 1):P21, 2008.

Bassit, R.A., Sawada, L.A., Bacurau, R.F., et al. The effect of BCAA supplementation upon the immune response of triathletes. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise 32(7):1,214–1,219, 2000.

Bassit, R. A., et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and the immune response of long-distance athletes. Nutrition. 2002 May;18(5):376-9.

D'Antona, G., et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes survival and supports cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in middle-aged mice. Cell Metab. 12(4):362-72, 2010.

de Araujo, J.A., et al. Effect of chronic supplementation with branched-chain amino acids on the performance and hepatic and muscle glycogen content in trained rats. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 29;79(14):1343-8.

De Palo, E.F., et al. Plasma lactate, GH and GH-Binding protein levels in exercise following BCAA supplementation in athletes. Amino Acids 20:1–11, 2001.

Greer, BK, et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and indicators of muscle damage after endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Dec;17(6):595-607.

Hassmen, P., et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during 30-km competitive run: mood and cognitive performance. Nutrition 10(5):405–410, 1994.

Koba, T., et al. Branched-chain amino acids supplementation attenuates the accumulation of blood lactate dehydrogenase during distance running. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007 Sep;47(3):316-22.

Matsumoto, K., et al. Branched-chain amino acids and arginine supplementation attenuates skeletal muscle proteolysis induced by moderate exercise in young individuals. Int J Sports Med. 2007 Jun;28(6):531-8.

Ohtani, M., et al. Amino Acid Mixture Improves Training Efficiency in Athletes. J. Nutr. 136: 538S–543S, 2006.

Talbott, S., et al. Effect of Branched Chain Amino Acids on Salivary Cortisol Levels During Endurance Exercise. Annual Meeting of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Las Vegas, 2006.

Piperine (Black Pepper Extract)

Piperine is an active extract derived from black or long pepper. Research suggests piperine enhances nutrient absorption, most likely by increasing blood flow to the digestive tract. For example, ingesting vitamin B6 along with Bioperine-branded piperine more than doubled the amount of B6 found in the blood of healthy men two hours after ingestion. It has been shown to increase the absorption of numerous other ingredients.

Studies have shown that 5mg of black pepper extract is sufficient to enhance nutrient absorption

References

Supporting Research

Patil UK, Singh A, Chakraborty AK. Role of piperine as a bioavailability enhancer. Int J Recent Adv Pharmac Res 4:16–23. 2011

Khajuria A, Zutshi U, Bedi K. Permeability characteristics of piperine on oral absorption: an active alkaloid from peppers and a bioavailability enhancer. Ind J Exp Biol 36:46–50. 1998

Khajuria A, Thusu N, Zutshi U. Piperine modulates permeability characteristics of intestine by inducing alterations in membrane dynamics: influence on brush border membrane fluidity, ultrastructure, and enzyme kinetics. Phytomedicine 9:224–31. 2002

Hiwale A, Dhuley J, Naik S. Effect of co-administration of piperine on pharmacokinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics in rats. Ind J Exp Biol 40:277–81. 2002

Post JYM as Pre-Workout

What do you do if you want to take Pre JYM but you can't get it—or you just don't want the caffeine? It's Post JYM. Remember, these two mirror one another. You've got branched-chain amino acids, creatine, betaine, beta-alanine—those four are your main, critical ingredients to get before your workout as far as nutrients go.

Obviously, there's caffeine in Pre JYM to help give you that drive and strength and endurance for the workout. There's citrulline malate there also, which enhances your endurance, your strength. There's alpha-GPC as well. There's huperzine for the mental aspect—that focus that you're going to get in the gym.

But really, when we're talking about true nutrients for a pre-workout, we're really focusing on those BCAAs, the creatine, the beta-alanine, and the betaine. Those are the four you want to make sure you get pre-workout and post-workout—so those four are also in Post JYM: BCAAs, another 6g in Post JYM—just like there are 6 full grams of branched-chains in Pre JYM—another 2g of the creatine HCl, another 2g of the beta-alanine, and another 1.5g of betaine.

Of course, there are also 3g of glutamine in there, and 2g of carnitine to boot, which are more critical post-workout—but also can be very effective when taking pre-workout. So if you're going for a caffeine-free pre-workout, simply get Post JYM and take a scoop pre-workout, and then another scoop post-workout.

If you want more of the energy without the caffeine, you could buy a citrulline malate product. Just make sure it's a 2:1, meaning that there's more citrulline to the malic acid—the malate part of citrulline malate—which is what I have in Pre JYM. Shoot for somewhere around 6g, if that's what you want.

Really, you'll find that just taking Post JYM alone for your pre-workout provides you enough energy from the BCAAs themselves, as well as the taurine that's in there—and even the beta-alanine which has a mild stimulatory effect, because it's been found to act as a neurotransmitter in the body. With just the ingredients in Post JYM, you'll get a nice workout when taken pre- and then also taken post-.

If I work out late at night? I'm usually fine with Pre JYM. But if I work out at midnight or even 1 a.m. and I want to go to bed by 2 or 3, then often I'll just use Post JYM as my pre-workout, but then also take it as my post-workout.

If it's to where you just can't get Pre JYM for whatever reason—whether you live in a country where you can't get it right now, you just ran out and didn't order in time and you have to go a few days or a week without it—get Post JYM. Buy some caffeine pills like NoDoze or Vivarin, they're literally cheap as can be. Pop one of those—one and a half if you want to get the 300mg of caffeine like Pre JYM in there. If you want to get the citrulline you can buy the citrulline—you can even buy huperzine and alpha-GPC separately and just take them along with the Post JYM. But even by itself, Post JYM really is my second choice for a pre-workout after Pre JYM.

The JYM System: Pre JYM and Post JYM Synergy

You really can't talk about Post JYM or Pre JYM without the other one, because what I've created here is a pre- and post-workout system, along with Pro JYM. I have ingredients in here that mirror one another. You take your BCAAs, creatine HCl, beta-alanine, and betaine before you workout. You also take BCAAs, betaine, beta-alanine, and creatine HCl post-workout. It's critical.

I've been writing about these ingredients and their effectiveness when taken together for over a decade. It's based on the research, and it's based on the real anecdotal data that I've seen in the gym in thousands and thousands of athletes and regular guys and girls who train. This is what works. So you can't think of one without the other because you need both to get the results that you want.

Your post-workout supplementation relies on your pre-workout supplementation, and vice versa—your pre-workout supplementation relies on your post-workout supplementation—because you want to be getting those ingredients that I'm talking about at those two different times, to only to maximize your performance during the workout but then to maximize your recovery and the results you get when the workout's long over.

That's why the JYM System is so effective. And that's why the entire JYM line is so popular, because these are systems that I'm creating. It's not about taking a single "magic bullet"—there are no "magic bullets". It's a program—just like my training programs, like my nutrition programs—it's a supplement program, that requires specific timing of specific ingredients in specific doses, and that's what Pre and Post JYM are providing. So stick with the system. As is the case with all my JYM Supplement Science products, these are proven ingredients, at listed clinical dosages—no proprietary blends, no “concentrates”—just real science, for unreal results.

 





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